Part I — Timur

Timur and the mendicant

The great conqueror Timur was an ancestor of the Moghul Emperors. Timur means 'Lord of Iron'. He is also known as Tamerlane, or Timur-the-Lame. In 1398 he came from his capital of Samarkand with his forces and invaded Northern India. He overthrew the Sultan of Delhi and occupied the royal city.

One day, during his campaigns in India, Timur saw a religious mendicant praying and meditating most soulfully at the foot of a tree. Timur was not a spiritual person, but he deeply appreciated spiritual people. He was so deeply moved by the religious mendicant that he told him he could have anything he wanted from him.

The mendicant said, "I do not need anything from you."

Timur asked, "But why not?"

The mendicant replied, "Because God has supplied me with all my material needs. I am sheltered by this beautiful tree and I can draw water from the river. During the day I have the sun, at night I have the moon, and all the time I have such a vast sky over my head. What else do I need?"

Timur said, "You do not have any money!"

The mendicant said, "I do not need any money."

"Then please come and visit my palace," said Timur.

"There is no need for me to visit your palace," said the mendicant. "It is true that each place has its own outer beauty, but I care only for the inner beauty."

Finally, Timur said, "I am the Emperor. You have to accept something from me."

The mendicant said, "Then give me something that will increase my aspiration and my love for God."

Timur was puzzled. He said, "I do not have any aspiration. How then can I give you something that will increase your aspiration?"

"Aspiration is the only thing I need," said the mendicant. "Anything else that I take from you I will not be able to appreciate or utilise."

Timur said, "No, you have to ask me for something else. Since I do not have anything to increase your aspiration, give me another chance to offer you something."

At last the mendicant agreed. He said, "All right. When I meditate here, sometimes flies come and bother me. Can you stop them from bothering me?"

The Emperor tried for a few moments to stop the flies from bothering the mendicant, but they came back again and again. At last the Emperor exclaimed, "This is an impossible task! How can I do it?"

The mendicant told him, "Oh, you are a real Emperor, indeed! You cannot even save me from these flies. Yet just now you were bragging about your wealth and capacity."

Timur was deeply humiliated. He stopped disturbing the poor spiritual mendicant and went away.

Timur did not remain in India. Having subdued it, he returned to Samarkand with much wealth and many skilled craftsmen. The great Moghul Emperors all descended from the House of Timur. They were at once brave and cultured. Each Moghul Emperor regarded Samarkand as his ancestral home.

Part II — Babar: (ruled 1526-1530)

The battle of Panipat

The name of the first Moghul Emperor was Babar, 'the Tiger'. He was not as great as Akbar, who was the greatest of all the Moghul Emperors, but he still was a very great Emperor. Since he was the first to conquer India and remain as Emperor, he had to fight and fight and fight to establish his kingdom.

Babar seized Samarkand from his cousin in 1497, but was soon ousted. The young warrior took it again a few years later, but once again he was forced to abandon it. He then advanced to Kabul, which he conquered in 1504 at the age of twenty-one. He adopted the Persian title of 'Padishah', meaning 'Emperor'. He soon set his sights on the conquest of India. India had been divided between two brothers: Ibrahim Lodi and Jaunpur. Jaunpur's supporters requested Babar to help them defeat Ibrahim Lodi.

Babar was only too eager to help. He crossed into India several times to help his ally. Finally, he entered India on his own behalf to subjugate Ibrahim Lodi once and for all and seize Agra and Delhi for himself.

At this time, Babar's son Humayun was sixteen years old. Humayun means 'Fortunate'. Sad to say, a series of unfortunate events later took place in Babar's and Humayun's lives.

As they were about to embark on their campaign, Humayun said, "Father, you know our army is nothing in comparison to Ibrahim Lodi's army. He has over 100,000 soldiers and 1,500 elephants, whereas we have only 12,000 soldiers. How can you dare to fight with him?"

But Babar replied, "No, my son, we shall conquer them. Let them have the number. We have the quality and the capacity."

Humayun said, "Father, I shall always abide by your will. Let us go."

Both father and son were great heroes, and with their small army they went to conquer Ibrahim Lodi's army. There ensued a bloody battle known as the Battle of Panipat. Although Babar's forces were outnumbered by those of Ibrahim Lodi, Babar had both guns and cannons in his weaponry. Cannons were previously unknown in India, and they brought destruction to Ibrahim Lodi's soldiers and also caused his elephants to stampede. Finally, Babar's army began to overpower the vast forces of Ibrahim Lodi.

One of the commanders in Ibrahim Lodi's army said to him, "O King, do stay at the rear of the army. Do not remain in the thick of the battle. As a matter of fact, let us keep fighting to the bitter end while you make your escape from these Mongols. You can easily raise another army in the future. We want you to be safe."

The King said, "How can I do that? If my army, my friends and my relatives are ready to give their lives for me, will I run away in order to save my own life? If they are willing to give their lives, can I not also be willing to give my life?"

The King fought very bravely, but eventually he was killed by Babar's men. The commander who killed him was full of happiness that the enemy King was dead and he hurried to tell Babar the news. Babar immediately asked the commander to take him to the dead body.

When Babar got to the scene, he raised Ibrahim Lodi's head from the ground and said, "I admire you. You fought very, very bravely. Now I will take full responsibility to see that you are honoured as a King should be when he dies. I will give you a grand funeral worthy of a King and I will have a King's tomb erected. I will do everything for you. You are a real hero!"

Babar's oneness with his army

This incident took place when Babar was on his way to India. At one point, just before reaching Kabul, he and his troops encountered a severe storm. It was raining heavily and then it began to snow. There was no place for the army to take shelter. Then, to their wide surprise, they discovered a tiny cave, so they begged Babar to enter into the cave while all of them remained outside. They were ready to be drenched to the skin.

But Babar said, "How can I do that? You are my intimate friends and companions. This protection is not enough for all of us. Since it is not adequate for all, I do not need it. I cannot sleep in comfort while you remain in misery. Whatever hardship has to be faced, I will face it with you. I am more than happy to pass the night outside with you."

So Babar did not enter into the tiny cave. The storm lasted for a long time and then they were able to proceed to their destination. This was Babar's loving oneness with his friends and admirers.

Babar himself wrote about this incident in his famous memoirs, which are called Babar-nama. Babar was a good poet, a great hunter and a man of wisdom. He was extremely kind, extremely generous and extremely powerful. It is said that he swam every river on his way to India and crossed the Ganges in just thirty- three strokes.

The Kohinoor diamond

After defeating Ibrahim Lodi, Babar seized Delhi and sent Humayun with an advance army to march on Agra. In the mosque at Delhi, Babar proclaimed himself 'Padishah' of Hindustan. The people were very pleased with their new conqueror, for the former ruler had not been at all nice.

At Agra, Humayun was greeted by the wives of the Raja of Gwalior, who had been killed in the Battle of Panipat. They brought their jewels to propitiate Humayun. Among them was India's most precious diamond, the rose-tinted Kohinoor. The value of the Kohinoor was such that it could provide two and a half days' food for the whole world. (The British Government later took this diamond away from India and it now forms part of the British crown jewels.)

When Babar arrived in Agra, Humayun showed the diamond to his father and said, "Father, this is for you."

But Babar replied, "No, my son, you deserve it. You have been given it and you should keep it. I am very proud of you. You have fought so bravely. You are a great warrior. That is why you have been given this diamond. Now you keep it. I will be so happy if you do."

Babar's heart of forgiveness

Once, while Babar was away from his capital, his step-grandmother instigated one of his cousins to stand against him. This particular cousin made friends with the chief of the army and a few important figures in the kingdom. When Babar tried to return to the capital, the whole army fought against him. They would not allow Babar to come back. But Babar had quite a few followers outside his kingdom and they helped him to fight against his own people. Babar was so great and powerful that he eventually won the battle.

After he had won, Babar went and knelt down before his step-grandmother. He said to her, with folded hands, "I do not hold anything against you. If a mother likes one son more than another son, what can the less favoured son do? He should not feel miserable. True, a mother should love all her children equally, but if she does not, the ones who are not in favour should not feel sorry. They should still have the same love for their mother as the ones who stand high in her favour. So I do not hold anything against you. You have done the right thing, according to your light. Now let me have peace of mind." Then he placed his head on her lap and fell asleep.

A few hours later, Babar woke up, only to see the main culprit, his cousin, standing in front of him. He had been arrested and brought to Babar by the Emperor's loyal followers. Babar stood up and embraced his cousin. Then he said to him, "You are at perfect liberty either to stay with me or to leave my kingdom. If you want to leave my kingdom and live elsewhere, I will meet with all your expenses. If you want to continue staying here, you are free to do so. I feel no ill will towards you at all."

His cousin said to him, "Babar, I want to stay with you. If I leave you, people will try to kill me — not your favourites, but those who helped me fight against you. They will try to kill me in order to make you feel that they have become very devoted to you. So I want to stay with you. I know that you will never kill me. Not only that, I know that your forgiveness and compassion will be my eternal friends, and that you will eventually give me a high post."

Babar gave his cousin a broad smile of forgiveness and assurance.

Babar takes a life

There was nothing that the great Emperor Babar would hesitate to do for his subjects. He used to regard his subjects as his own children. From time to time, Babar used to go out of the palace grounds and walk along the streets and through the markets to mix with his subjects and see for himself the conditions in which they were living. Often, if he saw someone who was poverty-stricken, he would help that person with a little money or food. People did not recognise their Emperor during these wanderings because he would dress very simply. Also, he wore a kind of turban over his crown to disguise it.

Now it happened that there was a young man who cherished tremendous jealousy towards Babar because everybody appreciated, admired and adored the Emperor. Babar's subjects always extolled him to the skies for his bravery, kindness, nobility and other divine qualities. For this reason, the young man had been harbouring a desire to kill Babar. He had heard that from time to time the Emperor walked in the city all alone. So this young man always carried a sword, hoping that someday he would meet the Emperor when he did not have his bodyguards with him and then have the opportunity to kill the Emperor.

Usually, when Babar went out, his guards would secretly follow him to protect him. Although Babar did not want anyone to go with him, his guards were afraid for his safety. Babar was the ruler of the whole empire, but in this respect his own bodyguards would not listen to him.

One particular afternoon, Babar managed to walk out of the palace gates alone, without his guards. As usual, he went incognito. As he was walking along observing the daily activities of his subjects, he saw a mad elephant coming down the street. The elephant was trampling everything in sight. Pandemonium broke out. People were shouting and trying to escape from the elephant's path and everybody was panicking. But there was one little, helpless child who could not run fast enough to get out of the elephant's way. Everybody was frightened to death, but nobody dared to try to save the child. Just as the elephant was about to trample the little child, the Emperor ran over at top speed and snatched the child out of the way. Babar saved the child, but as he was running away with the child in his arms, his turban fell to the ground.

When the mad elephant had passed by, some men ran to pick up the turban of the brave hero. Immediately they saw the Emperor's crown inside the turban. The young man who had wanted to kill Babar was one of those who witnessed the whole scene. Although he himself had known that the child's life was in grave danger, he had not been brave enough to try to save him. He had run away, just like everybody else. When he realised what had happened, he fell at Babar's feet and said, "O Emperor, forgive me."

Babar asked him, "What have you done?"

The man replied, "I have been cherishing the desire to kill you for many years because I was terribly jealous of the admiration you receive. Now I see that you truly deserve it. As Emperor, you are far more precious to the kingdom than any of us, but you were ready to give up your own life to save an ordinary human being. What I have learned from you is that it is infinitely better to give life than to take life. This is what you have taught me. Now, instead of taking your life, I am giving you mine. Please take my life."

Then he offered Babar the selfsame sword with which he had planned to kill him.

Babar took the sword and said, "I taught you how to give life. Now I am going to take your life, but not in the way that you think. Come with me. From now on, you will be one of my bodyguards. I can see that your sincerity is truly remarkable and I am sure that you will be a faithful guard."

So Babar took the man's life, only to make it into a useful and fruitful one. Instead of killing him, instead of punishing him, Babar made the man one of his personal bodyguards.

Babar's concern for the merchant

Once a merchant was passing through the mountains with his caravan to bring goods to another town. On the way, there was a terrible storm and lightning struck the caravan. The merchant and many other people were killed, and there was nobody to take responsibility for his wares.

When Babar heard of the tragedy, he asked his soldiers to collect all the goods and keep them in a safe place. Then he sent a message to the merchant's relatives to come to him immediately. When they arrived, Babar gave everything to them. The members of the merchant's family were overwhelmed by Babar's concern and kindness. They wanted to give the Emperor an expensive gift, but he would not accept it. They begged him at least to take some reimbursement for his trouble, but again Babar refused.

He said, "No, I cannot do that. You have lost your dearest one. Now I cannot take advantage of his death. His wealth and property belong to you; it is you who deserve it."

So Babar gave everything to the merchant's relatives without accepting any reward. The merchant's family was deeply moved.

Babar sacrifices his life

When Humayun was still a young man, he fell seriously ill. Day by day his condition grew worse, until death seemed imminent. The most eminent doctors were called in, but no one was able to cure him. They all said his days were numbered. Many people prayed to Allah for Humayun's recovery, but to no avail.

Then a saint came to Babar and said, "If you make a great sacrifice, if you sacrifice something most precious to you, only then will your son be cured."

The Emperor Babar asked, "What kind of thing should I sacrifice?"

The saint replied, "Give away the Kohinoor diamond. It is most precious."

But Babar said, "The Kohinoor is my son's possession. What kind of sacrifice would that be? I have to sacrifice something of my own. I have so much wealth and such a vast kingdom. But the most precious Kohinoor diamond is not mine. Therefore, I cannot sacrifice it. And even if I did own the Kohinoor, it would not be a real sacrifice to give it away. Even if I were to give away all my wealth and power — my entire kingdom — I do not think this is the most precious sacrifice that I could make. My life alone is most precious. There is nothing dearer to me than my own life. Humayun is my eldest and dearest son. I am ready to give my life for my son."

After saying this, the Emperor folded his hands and circled his dying son's bed three times, praying to Allah. He said, "Allah, everybody is telling me to offer You the most precious thing so that You will kindly save my son's life. I feel that my life is the most precious thing I have to offer. Please take my life instead of my son's. Let me die in his place, and let him live on earth. This is my only prayer and my most willing sacrifice."

To Babar's wide surprise, after he had completed three rounds, his son stood up completely well. But immediately Babar fell deathly ill.

Humayun wept with gratitude and love for his father. He said to Allah, "My father is going to die, but I shall eternally treasure my father's fondness for me and my father's implicit faith in Your Compassion."

Allah listened to Babar's prayer and in three months' time Babar died. This is the kind of love that an earthly father can have for his beloved son.

Part III — Humayun: 1st Rule: 1530-1540, 2nd Rule: 1555-1556

Brother, come and save me!

The Emperor Humayun was in his palace one day when he heard a commotion. He asked his guards, "What is happening?"

One of them replied, "A messenger has come from Chittor. Queen Karmavati of Chittor has sent a message for you."

"How strange!" exclaimed the Emperor. "Let him in. I am curious to know what a Hindu Queen has to say to a Muslim Emperor."

When the Emperor opened the letter, he found a special thread. It is traditional for sisters to offer this kind of affectionate and sacred thread to their brothers once a year on the Indian festival day of Rakhi. When offering the /rakhi bandhan,/ the sister asks her brother to protect her honour and save her if anything should happen during the coming year.

The message read: "To Emperor Humayun, this sacred thread is given by your sister to her adopted brother. Your sister needs your help to save Chittor from Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat."

Humayun said, "Karmavati! Karmavati is a Rajput Queen, a Hindu Rani, and I am a Muslim. She calls me her brother? If I am her brother, this means that all Hindus and Muslims are of one family, that Hindus and Muslims will not remain enemies forever but will one day live together as a single family. This is the happiest day of my life."

Humayun immediately rushed to Chittor with his army. Before he reached the fortress, he heard the horrible news that Karmavati had taken her own life. When her husband had been killed in battle, she had written to Humayun and had been waiting for his arrival ever since. But when she was about to be captured by the Muslim Sultan Bahadur Shah, she threw herself into the fire rather than surrender to him.

Humayun was shocked and horrified. He felt miserable that he had not come in time to save her. He cried out, "I shall take revenge. Rani Karmavati called me her brother. A Hindu Queen called a Moghul Emperor 'brother'. This brother shall not rest until he avenges his sister's death. This is my promise."

As soon as Bahadur Shah heard about Humayun's arrival in Chittor, he fled and went into hiding. But Humayun made a pledge, both to himself and before the Hindu Queen's subjects: "O Bahadur Shah, no matter where you go in Allah's entire creation, I shall find you and kill you. In this way I shall keep my promise to Karmavati. Now, my Hindu sister, you are in the other world, but I shall carry out my promise. I shall be worthy of your trust in me."

The water carrier's bravery

Once the Emperor Humayun was fighting a terrible battle against his enemy, the cunning Afghan chieftain Sher Shah. The battle took place at Chausa, near Benares. Sher Shah's army was extremely powerful and it outnumbered Humayun's army. What was worse, Humayun's treacherous brothers, Kamran and Hindal, had joined forces with the enemy in their greed to dethrone Humayun and capture the kingdom.

As Humayun's shattered army was falling back, the Emperor's horse slipped and fell into the river. The horse drowned and Humayun was badly hurt. He was being tossed around helplessly in the surging waters.

A bhisti or water carrier named Nizam, who was a humble man of low caste, saw the Emperor's dire plight and cried out, "I fear for the Emperor's life! His subjects admire and adore him as a just and great Emperor. If he drowns, we will lose our only hope for a better and more illumining life. I can see that he is wounded and will not be able to save himself. It is up to me to save him."

The water carrier inflated his buffalo-skin water bag and plunged bravely into the river. He swam to the Emperor, holding out the water bag, and begged the Emperor to cling to it so that he could float across the river to safety. Both men held the bag and the water carrier protected the wounded Emperor until they reached the other shore.

The Emperor was so moved by the water carrier's devotion and courage. He said, "You came and saved my life. Now I am helpless, but I promise you that when I go back to Agra and am once more seated on my throne, I shall give you my throne for one day. Believe me, this is my solemn promise. You are not a mere water carrier. You are the saviour of the Moghul Emperor Humayun."

The water carrier Nizam was overwhelmed. He fell at the Emperor's feet and cried, "Please, I did not expect any reward. Your safety is my only reward."

But Humayun insisted, "You, a water carrier of low caste, have shown such loyalty and love for your Emperor, whereas my own brothers have become traitors. I will always be kind to them and forgive them, for this is the promise that I made to my father when he was on his deathbed. But of all my subjects, you are the one who deserves my throne for one day. You deserve not only my throne, but my eternal gratitude. All my subjects should show you admiration and adoration for your heroic bravery."

The Emperor kept his promise and Nizam did sit on the throneof the Emperor of India for one day and give orders and make appointments for a short time.

Humayun forgives his Prime Minister

One day the Emperor Humayun was addressing his court. His Prime Minister was sitting right in front of him, but he was not paying any attention to the Emperor's talk. He was totally exhausted and he was sleeping soundly.

Humayun became more and more disappointed and disgusted with his Prime Minister. He said to him in a loud voice, "What are you doing? You are sleeping right in front of me! Have you no respect? What bad manners you have!"

The Prime Minister replied, "Your Majesty, I was not sleeping."

"Then what were you doing?" asked Humayun.

The Prime Minister said, "Your Majesty, wise people say that when an Emperor speaks, you have to listen with folded hands. When a great orator speaks, you have to look at his eyes. And when your loving and compassionate friend speaks, you have to feel his heart. While I was sitting in front of you, I was seeing you as all three persons: as an Emperor, a great orator and a com passionate friend. So I was closing my eyes and wondering what I should do — should I listen to you as the Emperor, as a great orator or as my most compassionate friend?"

Humayun smiled and said, "You are such a clever fellow, such a wonderful rogue and such a perfect flatterer! All right, you have won the case. Not only do I forgive you, but I will give you a nice reward for your extraordinary ability to save yourself."

The birth of Akbar

When Humayun was forced to abdicate by Sher Shah, he fled into the deserts of Rajputana with a small group of followers. On the way, he married Hamida Begum. One morning he was engaged in fighting a terrible battle against his enemy. The battle was raging and Humayun was leading the attack. Suddenly Humayun saw his faithful palace messenger trying to make his way towards him, but the soldiers were not allowing the messenger to come to the front of the army. Humayun issued an order that the messenger be allowed through.

Humayun took shelter for a moment in a secluded place to receive the messenger. The messenger bowed to the Emperor and said, "O great Emperor Humayun, I have just come from Umarkot. The Empress Hamida Begum has delivered a son."

Humayun was so delighted and excited. Across the battlefield, he called out, "Allah be praised! My son and heir has been born. We shall name him Akbar."

Then he said to the messenger, "Alas, this is my fate! My son has been born, yet I am still fighting my enemies and no victory is in sight. I have nothing of value with me to give you, O messenger, for bringing me the happiest news. All I have is a small quantity of musk in this tiny box. This is the only thing I have to offer you. But I tell you, one day my son's fame will cover the length and breadth of the world as the fragrance of the musk fills the air here. Like perfume, my son's fame will one day spread throughout the world."

It was the twenty-third day of November 1542. Humayun and his soldiers continued on and seized the town of Jun. A few weeks later, Hamida arrived with Akbar and Humayun saw his son for the first time. He said, "My father gave me the name 'Humayun', which means 'Fortunate'. He was right. I am truly fortunate, for I see in you, my child, all the world's fortune. I clearly see that you will be the greatest of all Moghul Emperors. I see it and I feel it."

Then he said to his wife, Hamida Begum, "I am once more leaving for the battlefield. I am a warrior. I fight with the outer enemy, while religious mendicants, spiritual people, fight with the inner enemies: anger, pride and so forth. I do not have time to fight against the inner enemies. Outer enemies are more than enough for me to cope with. But our son, Akbar, will also fight against the inner enemies. He will inwardly and outwardly be divinely great and supremely good."

Humayun spares Kamran's life

Humayun promised his father on his father's deathbed that he would always be kind to his brothers, Kamran, Askari and Hindal. When Humayun became the Moghul Emperor, his brothers became extremely greedy. They betrayed him many, many times and wanted to dethrone him. But Humayun forgave them time and again.

When Humayun's son, Akbar, was only a baby, Kamran set a cannon in a tricky way in order to kill the child. When Akbar's nurse, Maham Anaga, came to know of the plot, she shielded and protected the child with her own body.

Everybody wanted Humayun to have Kamran killed for this attempt on Prince Akbar's life, but Humayun said, "I have forgiven my brother many times. This time also I have to forgive him."

But his subjects said, "No, this time you have to listen to our request. We are so faithful to you. We offer you our constant admiration and adoration. It is your duty to listen to us."

Finally, the Emperor said, "All right, what do you want?"

His subjects said, "Blind your brother so that he cannot be of harm to us any more."

The peace-loving Humayun replied, "I am ready to send him into exile, but I do not have the heart to blind him."

His subjects would not accept the Emperor's proposal. They said, "No, if you send him into exile, in some tricky way he will escape and raise an army to attack us. So the best thing is to blind him."

Eventually Humayan was compelled to put aside his brotherly feelings and order Kamran to be blinded.

Humayun's death

In 1555, after a long campaign, Humayun won back Delhi and recovered his lost throne. His subjects were extremely happy and excited that the Emperor had returned victorious. The whole kingdom turned out to cheer him, lining the streets to the palace. All his subjects wanted to touch his feet and sing his praises.

When the Emperor reached the palace, he said to his army, "We have won, but it is all due to Allah's Grace. Otherwise, we would not have won. Let me go to the mosque and offer my gratitude to Allah."

In the mosque, Humayun offered his soulful prayer and heart's gratitude to Allah: "O Allah, You have always been kind to me. Even my own brothers, not to speak of kith and kin, have deceived and betrayed me many times. But I promised my father on his deathbed that I would be kind to them. Therefore, I have forgiven them every time. I myself have also done so many wrong things in this life, and You have forgiven me as I have forgiven my own brothers and relatives. You have always taught me that forgiveness is the answer and not revenge. To satisfy oneself, forgiveness is the only answer. Allah, accept my gratitude-life and my gratitude-heart for this great victory."

Unfortunately, Humayun was not able to enjoy his victory for long. One day, as the sunset call to prayer was heard, Humayun fell down the steep steps leading from the tower he used as a library and fractured his skull.

Shocked and horrified, his attendants rushed to his side. Humayun whispered, "Allah, this is my last prayer to You. Soon I am going to be with You. My father died while praying to You. I was dying and he prayed that You would take his life instead of mine. You listened to his prayer. He died in my place and I was cured. Now I am dying while praying to You. I pray for my kingdom, for my people and for my son. I know there is only one way to gain victory and that way is through prayer. Without prayer, there is no success and no glory. No prayer, no satisfaction.

"Allah, Allah, may Your Glory be praised in all human hearts throughout Your creation. I leave my son here on earth in Your Care. Do save him and protect him. Do give him world-glory. My last prayer is not the prayer of the great Emperor Humayun, but the prayer of a soulful Muslim mendicant-seeker who needs no one but Allah for eternal peace and eternal satisfaction. Satis faction is what I have always needed and what I shall always need, forever and forever.

"Allah, You have given me that satisfaction now — not in the victory of the battlefield, but in allowing me to utter Your compassionate Name. Your Name is all peace. Satisfaction abides in peace and peace is satisfaction, satisfaction alone. Allah, Allah, Allah!"