The disciple and the Master: a centenary offering (1862-1962)
Vivekananda the wonder-warriorSri Ramakrishna's unstinted Grace and Naren's volcanic Will combined to create Vivekananda who, to all intents and purposes, created a commotion all the world over. The never-to-be-forgotten words of Sri Aurobindo run:
But there is the amusing story that Vivekananda in his childhood in reply to his father's query said that his ambition in life was to become a coachman like the one who loved him much and whose love he reciprocated.
Another anecdote. Once in his adolescence he asked his father what he had done for the son. “Go and look into the mirror,” came the prompt reply. Naren obeyed. He looked at his own reflection in the mirror and walked away quietly. Evidently he became convinced that he owed his magnificent personality solely to his father.
Now let us move on to a more significant topic. Tagore was an adorer of beauty, while the dominant trait of Vivekananda was the expression of power. But Vivekananda too possessed a deep sense of appreciation of subtle beauty. “Beauty,” says he, "is not external, but already in the mind.“ Here we are reminded of what his spiritual daughter Nivedita wrote about her Master. "It was dark when we approached Sicily, and against the sunset sky, Etna was in slight eruption. As we entered the straits of Messina, the moon rose, and I walked up and down the deck beside the Swami, while he dwelt on the fact that beauty is not external, but already in the mind. On one side frowned the dark crags of the Italian coast, on the other, the island was touched with silver light.”
"Messina must thank me,” he said, “it is I who give her all her beauty.”
Truly, in the absence of appreciation, beauty is not beauty at all. And beauty is worthy of its name only when it has been appreciated. Further, they are not many in number who really have the power of appreciating it.
— Victor Hugo
Vivekananda looked upon the world as his dear Motherland, and upon mankind as his true brothers and sisters and, come what may, to serve them was his cherished religion. Religion is a unique thirst for the One and the many. Assimilation and toleration are the true signs of the greatest religion. Let us not forget Colton. "Men will wrangle for religion; write for it; fight for it; die for it; do anything but live it.” Religions are like the lines of a poem. As each line is helpful, rather responsible for the completion of the poem, even so every religion is responsible for the entire fulfilment of the others. And according to Vivekananda religion is never a mere creed, but an ever-living and enlightening experience. How beautifully he unites the two antagonists, the materialist and the spiritualist. "The materialist is right. There is but One. Only he calls that Matter and I call it God.”
It is an undeniable fact that the Western mind has a liking for making plans before it takes up anything. Is it at all advisable? Not in the least, in the opinion of Vivekananda. The Eternal Will is sure to carry out its work at its chosen hour. Once he had to reprove Nivedita. "Plans! Plans! That is why you Western people can never create a religion! If any of you ever did, it was only a few Catholic saints, who had no plans. Religion was never, never preached by planners."
Again, it was Vivekananda who spoke to his Indian brothers about the greatest achievement of the English.
God and men are as inseparable as one's head and hair. It is our blind stupidity that fails to find indivisibility between man and God. The gods who are not one of us, who ignore and look down upon us can never be our cherished gods.
His was a life of unimaginable sacrifice. And how can India, his Motherland, dare to forget his message of stupendous sacrifice? "For my own part I will be incarnated two hundred times, if that is necessary to do this amongst my people, that I have undertaken.“ At this Sri Ramakrishna, if he had heard his disciple, could have done nothing but clap and dance in supreme ecstasy. For it was this very Naren whose heart ached to remain always in samadhi and whom he had to scold fondly by saying, "I thought you had been born for something greater, my boy!"
— Julius Caesar
Vivekananda and his Master1A popular view is that without Vivekananda Sri Ramakrishna would have remained the Sri Ramakrishna of Bengal; to the wider world he would at most have been a mere name. One may quite reasonably dispute the point. For no spiritual force of Sri Ramakrishna's dimensions could lose its dynamism and get cooped up within the narrow limits of one little province. But it goes without saying that Vivekananda would not be his mighty self without his child-like, simple but towering spiritual Master.
The reciprocal appreciation of the greatness of the disciple and the Master has found an exceedingly interesting expression in their lives. The former was firmly convinced that millions of Vivekananda could come into existence at the fiat of his Master, while the latter declared that his Naren was the incarnation of Narayan himself to uplift humanity.
Without Arjuna would the victory of Kurukshetra have been possible? Sri Krishna had to preach the whole Gita to train his disciple, over and above infusing into him his divine force.
Sri Ramakrishna and Vivekananda appeared in an age more advanced. Hence the Master could much more easily make of Naren what he intended him to be.
In the life of Narendranath we notice two instances in which Matter submitted to the Spirit.
The young Narendranath steeped in agnosticism accepting matter and doubting the existence of the supreme Spirit would question people who seemed to be advanced in spirituality, if they had direct vision of God. Maharshi Devendranath, father of Tagore, attempted thrice in vain to answer the query of the bold young man and had at last said, "You possess the eyes of a Yogi."
This very Narendranath fell at the hallowed feet of Sri Ramakrishna who was a veritable embodiment of the Spirit and who saw the Spirit permeating Matter.
As a contrast, the supremely materialistic America had practically bowed down before Vivekananda who stood there as the spiritual representative of the East.
His was a life of numerous miracles. At the age of eight he entered into trance for the first time! He was only thirty years old when America, nay the West, found the spiritual giant in him! In his childhood and boyhood he condemned women terribly. But in his later years he fought like a giant for the progress of the Indian womanhood! We may, however, hold that in his earlier days Vivekananda was afraid not of woman but of temptation. It took six long years for him to make his proud head bow to the Mother Kali. And when his surrender was complete he opened his devoted lips: "All my patriotism is gone. Everything is gone. Now it's only Mother, Mother!"
I am sure, my purpose will be better served if I just reproduce his own words about Kali. "How I used to hate Kali!” Vivekananda said, "and all Her ways. That was the ground of my six years' fight — that I would not accept Her. But I had to accept Her at last. Ramakrishna Paramahansa dedicated me to Her, and now I believe that She guides me in every little thing I do, and does with me what She wills.”
But Vivekananda ruthlessly looked down upon the so-called miracles that create a commotion in the minds of people. "I look upon miracles as the greatest stumbling block in the way of truth. When the disciples of Buddha told him of a man who had performed a so-called miracle — and showed him the bowl, he took it and crushed it under his feet and told them never to build their faith on miracles, but to look for truth in everlasting principles. He showed them the inner light — the Light of the Spirit, which is the only safe light to go by. Miracles are only stumbling blocks. Let us brush them aside.”
To show surprise at anything amounts to a tacit expression of ignorance, hence weakness. "Never show surprise." Such was the command of Viswanath Dutta to his son Naren when he was in his teens. The son acted up to his father's instructions from that very day until the end of his life. He spent at the foot of the silence-hushed and snow-capped Himalayas years together during his itinerary. He met people drawn from all sections of society — from the lowest to the highest. He came in close contact with the poorest and the richest of the world. In spite of striking differences in the world, surprise could never take shelter in his all-conceiving eyes.
Perfection is the only choice for a man treading the path of spirituality. Perfection and infinite bliss run abreast. True happiness lies nowhere else except in perfection. But how to achieve this perfection? Vivekananda shows us a unique way to achieve the impossible. He writes: "If we can distinguish well between quality and substance, we may become perfect men.”
Sweetness and happiness are rarely found in carrying out earthly duties. No human being must be judged by the nature of his duties, but by the manner and the spirit in which he discharges them. What is our duty and what is not our duty has been the most puzzling, the most intricate problem to be solved since the dawn of civilisation. But the bold statement made by Vivekananda solves it in a very easy manner. "Any action that makes us go Godward is a good action, and that is our duty; any action that makes us go downward is evil, and that is not our duty.” And we may further add to it that in order to advance in life, it is our duty to have faith in ourselves first and then in the Divine. Everybody must remember the undeniable truth that without having faith in oneself one can never have faith in God.
DMS 2. Appeared in the "Hindusthan Standard", India, April 15, 1962↩
Ramakrishna: Soul of the East2No Indian youth of the rising generation can ever dream of escaping the subtle influence of Sri Ramakrishna Paramahansa. This simple Brahmin conquered the hearts of men with a spiritual weapon which is commonly called Intuition-Power. He was born with it. He did not much care for the other weapon which is Brain-Power.
Looked at with human eyes, his appearance was so helpless — a storm-tossed raft seemed more dependable than the frail frame of this prophet. But going deep within, one could discover his true personality. To one's surprise, one could find in his teachings a colossal Will that could shake the world. Here was a man whose authoritative voice declared that he had not only seen the Omnipotent, but could show Him to his beloved disciple, Naren (Vivekananda). He further claimed that he saw God more clearly than he saw the disciple standing before him.
As Ramakrishna's life was replete with wonderful visions, his beloved Naren's life was surcharged with the power to fulfil those visions here on earth. Awakened India must ever remain beholden to Ramakrishna-Vivekananda, for it is they who were the most outstanding spiritual figures to appear on Indian soil during the last century. The Master and the disciple were hardly two distinct individuals. Each helped to shape the other. To our deeper vision, they formed an integral whole.
Sri Ramakrishna's precepts were couched in the simplest language, in words that flew straight into the hearts of the people. The blessings that India, nay the world, received from him, his unique universal sympathy, stand matchless. "I do not care,“ he said, "I will give up a thousand such bodies to help one man. It is glorious to help even one man. "To live the truths that one has preached is often an impossibility. Glory to Sri Ramakrishna that he was a triumphant living example of the truths that he preached. To him, religion was nothing short of realisation. He synthesized most of the major world religions by his direct and immediate realisation of each of them. One by one, he pierced the core of each religion, extracted its essence and became the perfect embodiment of that path to the Supreme. Sri Ramakrishna firmly believed, too, that a time would come when an aspirant would be able to attain to God-realisation by three days' practice.
"Ramakrishna was God manifested in a human being… Vivekananda was a radiant glance from the eye of Siva.” So said Sri Aurobindo, the founder of the Integral Yoga.
Vivekananda looked upon his Master as the embodiment of perfection. "In the presence of my Master, I found out that man could be perfect even in this body.”
In the following lines produced from the penetrating pen of K. D. Sethna, we shall observe how in the march of evolution, one Avatar paves the way for the next one.
"East is East and West is West and never the twain shall meet.” The famous statement by Kipling was proved false when Vivekananda, with his flood of Sri Ramakrishna's inspiration, gloriously united the East and the West with his unique message on religion.
India wants "to be". The West wants "to do". Is it not at once safe and advisable "to be“ first and then to offer one's contribution to the wide world? "Atmanam Viddhi", Know Thyself, says the Upanishad. First know thyself and then do thou proclaim thyself. This was Ramakrishna's secret. There are different paths leading to the Divine. But the shortest and most sunlit path is the Mother Cult. This Mother Cult was most powerfully shown to the Indians by Sri Ramakrishna. The never-ceasing injunction of his teachings was, "Approach the Divine as a child approaches his mother; with the same purity, sincerity, ardent love and faith, and the Mother will come to you! Call 'Ma, Ma'; call again and again. The Mother is bound to come."
When the influence of Western culture had almost caused the real "self" of India to die, and the children of India were running amuck to imitate Western culture, Ramakrishna Paramhansa knew that the time was ripe for him to revive the lost tradition of India.
"Sri Ramakrishna,” said Nolini Kanta Gupta, the celebrated Bengali author, "represents spirituality at its absolute, its pristine fount and power. In him we find the pure gold of spirituality at a time when duplicity, perplexity, deceit and falsehood on the one hand, and atheism, disbelief and irreverence on the other reigned supreme…. When spirituality had almost disappeared from the world and even in India, it existed, as it were, merely in name, there was the advent of Sri Ramakrishna bringing with him spirituality in its sheer plenitude and investing it with eternal certitude and infallibility.”
It was Ramakrishna, too, who showed the greatest reverence for women that the world has known. He felt that women were the embodiments of the Divine Mother and he treated them as divinities. His own consort, Sarada Devi, he worshipped as the Divine Mother Herself.
Far and wide travelled the renown of Ramakrishna's spiritual teachings, influencing among others the French savant, Romain Rolland. So deeply was he touched that in the evening of his life he wrote the memorable book, "The Life of Sri Ramakrishna.” Two lines of significant insight I quote from that book.
Once Swami Vivekananda went to Oxford to pay homage to Professor Max Muller, whom he looked upon as a sage and a “Vedantist of Vedantists and kindness itself.” On Vivekananda's departure, the Professor, who had seen seventy winters, accompanied the Swami to the railway station, justifying his coming by saying, “It is not every day that one meets a disciple of Ramakrishna Paramhansa.”
Sri Ramakrishna, to Thee we offer our deepest homage. Our hearts feel that what you possessed was the Infinite and the Infinite was your heart's Eternal Home.
DSMS 3. Appeared in the "Amrita Bazar Patrika" of N. India, Feb. 18 1962.↩
The child of KaliThe child Ramakrishna was at once God-centric and God-intoxicated. It is often that a God-lover is misunderstood and considered to be a lunatic of the first water. Sri Ramakrishna was no exception, in the eyes of some of his countrymen. As a child cries to his mother for sweets and toys so did the child Ramakrishna for love and devotion to his Mother Kali. And this love and devotion is nothing other than the secret key to open the door to God-realisation.
Ramakrishna will appear to one as a man of overflowing emotion, to a second as an ardent aspirant, to a third as a man of philosophical wisdom, to a fourth as a man of unique sincerity. It is obvious that different persons should possess different opinions regarding his personality. For in a matter like this, a flawless analysis on an intellectual basis is next to impossible, and all our human judgment must sadly fail to yield any useful result. But nobody will ever hesitate to call him the most beloved child of Kali the Mother. His sole aim in life was to have nothing save and except a constant union with the Mother Kali. His aim he did fulfil. And in one word we can sum up the message of his life: Ma.
A wonderful swimmer in the sea of Brahman's Silence, a unique clarion in the world-atmosphere of the Spirit's expression was Sri Ramakrishna. Although he had attained to the transcendental plane he preferred to be the flute to be played by his Mother Kali. To cite him: "I do not want to be sugar, but I want to taste sugar."
Ramakrishna was, as it were, the seed sown in the world soil and Vivekananda the bumper crop of which humanity is the reaper. Ramakrishna was the Inspiration, Vivekananda was its Expression and humanity has now both Inspiration and Expression as its peerless possessions.
Every word that fell from his divine lips carried weight; and sharp humour too was not wanting when occasion demanded, but those who had to suffer his humorous blows did feel later on that those blows were meant only to awake their slumbering soul. His trance-bound countenance, the simplicity of his expression, his unassuming and genial manner, the lucid cordiality of his relationship with all, coupled with his magnificently hallowed life and divine lore won for him a universal attraction and devotion. It was Ramakrishna who had peacefully housed in him the Cosmic and Trans-cosmic Consciousness with all possible exclusiveness of outlook. What he felt was spontaneous. What he said was spontaneous. What he did was spontaneous. He had no purpose of his own and whatever we apparently hold to be his purpose, that too, to our astonishment, was never influenced by the stream of desire. He had no will of his own save that of his Mother Kali. Consequently an occasion never arose in this self-dedicated life to the Mother to hold himself responsible for all his activities. Now we can easily come to the conclusion that the descent of Avatars like Sri Ramakrishna with a human body is simply to uplift and further the progress of mankind in the evolutionary process. They go on doing good to mankind in their earthly body so long as such continuance is necessary in the interest of humanity in spite of their being immune from any action, good or bad, big or small. Naturally we do not, and cannot, know all the phases of Sri Ramakrishna's mystic life. But what we dare understand is this that he taught us how to call to the Mother: no doubt, we are her children, but it is absolutely necessary to feel that She is our real Mother and we are her real children, and we have every right to demand of her all our needs which She will never fail to supply us.
Ramakrishna ranks high among the greatest mystics and spiritual figures of the world. His very life was in itself the most effective refutation of the half-believer and unbeliever of the Divine. Reason, whether erring or unerring, was altogether foreign to his nature. Who was Ramakrishna, if not a unique revelation of the Intuition? This supreme Mystic showed to the world that there is something divine beyond and behind the terrestrial appearances, and this is no mere inference of the hesitating understanding that the world is real. His teachings were surcharged with conviction. They sprang from the innermost depth of his heart. His simple and candid language has touched the heart of mankind as clearly as the sense-organs apprehend the physical objects of the world.
Apparently we do notice that the true and higher life is less contagious than the evil and the lower life. But the higher consciousness that constantly and puissantly flooded the mind and the heart of Ramakrishna exerted a unique attraction on all persons around him, whether his disciples or not, and finally lifted them above the ordinary plane to partake of the divine sweetness. They found that a supremely calm and serene atmosphere was not to be had from the eloquent discussions of the intellectuals, but only from Ramakrishna the eternal child of the eternal Mother Kali.
It is quite surprising that Naren, the dearest disciple of Ramakrishna, had in the beginning no faith in Mother Kali. Days ran into weeks, weeks into months and months into years, yet the proud head of Naren would not surrender to Kali. In season and out he would argue with his Master about the authenticity of divinity in the Mother. At times the Master was hurt. But the Mother used to brush off his qualms. Once She told her child that in due time Naren would have faith in her and stop arguing with him. With a heart full of certitude the Master said to his hesitating disciple that a time would come when at the mere mention of Mother Kali his eyes would shed tears. Infallible was his prophecy. In after years Vivekananda says: "How I used to hate Kali! and all her ways! That was the ground of my six years' fight — that I would not accept Her. But I had to accept Her at last! Ramakrishna Paramahansa dedicated me to Her, and now I believe that She guides me in every little thing I do, and does with me what She wills."
Vivekananda's invocation to Kali the Mother is unique.
...Come, Mother, come!
For Terror is Thy name,
Death is in Thy breath
And every shaking step.
Destroys a world for e'er.
Thou "Time", the All-Destroyer!
Come, O Mother, come!...
Something more significant we learn from him. He confides to us that only such a devotee can hope to cherish her Presence:
"Who dares misery love,
And hug the form of Death,
Dance in destruction's dance,
To him the Mother comes.”
The great Messenger of Nazareth declared to the world:
2) He that hath seen me hath seen the Father."
Two mothers and a son — Bhuvaneshwari, Sarada Devi and NarenSweeter than the sweetest is the smile of our physical mother. Deeper than the deepest is her affection. Mightier than the mightiest is the power of her blessing. Vaster than the vastest is her hope for her son.
If there be anything never-to-be forgotten, it is the reminiscences of one's own mother. "Wife and children may desert a man, but his mother never,” so says Vivekananda. In his childhood and boyhood Vivekananda found his confidante in nobody else save his mother and from her inherited not only moral purity and aesthetic sense but also many intellectual faculties and a unique memory. His mother's commanding personality could easily win the respect and veneration of all who came in contact with her. Her son's influence shook the world and her influence moulded his life considerably. The young Naren was subject to fits of restlessness. As his temper was of the quickest, as he was possessed of dauntless spirit, childish pranks, even so with no difficulty he could make a clean breast of the misdeeds of his restlessness to his mother.
"Should the worst come to the worst never swerve from the path of truth.” One day the schoolboy Naren got this bold and precious advice from his mother after his return from school. A sad incident took place in the class. The geography teacher said, "Naren, what you say is wrong.” “No, Sir, it is right.” “I say, it is not in the book.” “No, Sir, it is.” “No argument, I shall beat you black and blue.” Smack went the cane repeatedly. Yet Naren's sincere and bold heart would not acquiesce in what he knew to be wrong. After a while the teacher opened the book. To his extreme sorrow and shame he found Naren to be perfectly right.
As Naren was wont to disclose everything to his dear mother, this sad incident too he related to her. A tender smile played upon her lips. She fondly caressed and blessed her son, saying: "I am really happy and proud of you, my son. Should the worst come to the worst never swerve from the path of truth.” Another piece of advice he got from his mother in his boyhood. "Bileh (Naren), as you will try your utmost not to lose your prestige, even so never indulge in hurting or lowering others' prestige.”
True, poverty is no sin. But this truth too we cannot altogether ignore that poverty often doubts the existence of the merciful God. Within a few months after the death of Viswanath Dutta the family members found themselves in the jaws of poverty. Friends and relatives began deceiving them terribly. The eldest Naren was simply unfit to make both ends meet. Alas, one morning while rising from bed and repeating the name of God his attention was distracted by the sudden outburst of his mother who cried out, "Fool, be quiet! you have made yourself hoarse with praying to God from your childhood up. And what has he done for you?” His mother's words cut him to the quick. Such an occurrence, however, was very rare.
In after years many times Vivekananda spoke of his mother with a deep sense of gratitude. "It is my mother who has been the constant inspiration of my life and work."
1894. Vivekananda was then a guest of Mrs. Ole Bull in America. To comply with her request he gave a lecture on "The Ideals of Indian Women” to the women of Cambridge, a suburb of Boston. They were so much charmed by it that they could not help writing a letter to his mother in India.
The Mother of Swami Vivekananda,
...we, who have your son in our midst, send you greetings. His generous service to men, women and children in our midst was laid at your feet by him in an address he gave us the other day on the ‘Ideals of Indian Women.’ The worship of his mother will be to all who heard him an inspiration and an uplift... Accept, dear Madam, our grateful recognition of your life and work in and through your son. And may it be accepted by you as a slight token of remembrance to serve in its use as a tangible reminder that the world is coming to its true inheritance from God, Brotherhood and Unity."
Now let us turn to his spiritual mother Sarada Devi. However great the earthly mother may be, she is no match for the disinterested love of the spiritual Mother. Vivekananda's deepest conviction about the spiritual Mother runs:
On the eve of his departure to America he had decided that he would cross the seas only after having some concrete indications from his Master. He waited and waited. But all in vain. At last he argued that his spiritual Mother and the Master were one and the same. So he would seek her permission to go abroad. Accordingly he wrote a letter to Sarada Devi from Madras. By the time he received a letter from her he had a dream in which he saw his Master Sri Ramakrishna proceeding to the West over the waves and waters. This he took for approval of his plan. Presently he received the whole-hearted permission from his spiritual Mother. With a redoubled faith he was able to undertake his historic voyage.
When the Swadeshi movement was in full swing Sarada Devi once remarked, “Had my Naren been alive, he could not have remained quiet and would have surely been put in jail.” This indicates how constantly she cherished the memory of her darling Naren whom she would not allow to go anywhere all alone after his triumphant return from the West. We will not be far from the truth if we dare say that behind the fiery political activities of Nivedita it was her Master Vivekananda's mighty influence that loomed large. We are apt to lose sight of Swami Vivekananda's great contribution to the reawakening of the Indian Nation. His spiritual genius has, so to speak, eclipsed his patriotism. To cite Amal Kiran (K. D. Sethna):
The day of Sri Ramakrishna's passing. His disciples and consort were standing by him. An excruciating pain was in their hearts. Sarada Devi's eyes were full of tears, for soon her Kali (Ramakrishna) would pass behind the curtain of eternity. Naren was confused — almost baffled. Suddenly to their surprise Sri Ramakrishna, to whose life remained a few fleeting hours said to Sarada Devi: "Why do you weep so bitterly? I leave your Naren with you.”
We have dealt with the two mothers, physical and spiritual. Now let us focus our attention on their son. It will not be sufficient to say that Vivekananda was the son or brother or friend of so and so. Who was then Vivekananda? Or was there any need for any one to ask him for his credentials? Let us leave J.H. Wright3 to answer it. "To ask you, Swami, for your credentials is like asking the Sun to state its right to shine.”
"The very fact that Ramakrishna's chosen instrument for world-work was Vivekananda, a complex passionate analytic mind, a highly cultured master of system and organisation, a richly endowed physical nature, shows that India moves instinctively to grip earth no less than heaven. At least the intention of Ramakrishna was to reshape through Vivekananda the whole of the country's life in the light of God-realisation.” With these most significant words K. D. Sethna has depicted with unsurpassed mastery Vivekananda's life-long mission. Verily Vivekananda once boldly declared his personality was ushered upon the earth to bring down into the day-to-day practical life the precepts of Vedanta which Shankara wanted to reserve only for the ascetics dwelling in caves and forests.
When Vivekananda's days were numbered once he spoke in a very low voice. "If there had been another Vivekananda, then he would have understood what this Vivekananda has done. But in years to come hundreds of Vivekanandas will come into the world.”
It is left to history alone to bear witness to these profoundly pathetic and supremely prophetic words of Vivekananda, an Olympian leader of mankind.
DSMS 5,16. J.H.Wright was the Professor of Greek at Harvard University. It was he who introduced Vivekananda to the President of Parliament of Religions.↩
Vivekananda speaks about Christ
To the beginner, Christ would immediately speak of the Personal God. “Pray to your Father in Heaven.” To the one a little more advanced, he would say, “I am the vine, ye are the branches.” But to the one who is fully advanced and his dear disciple, he would proclaim: “I and my Father are One.” We find the same truth echoed in Sri Ramakrishna's words. He disclosed to his beloved Naren (Vivekananda) “He who is Rama, He who is Krishna, dwells at once in this body as Ramakrishna.”
It is a sad fact that often the disciples of various paths misinterpret the teachings of their masters to the extent of claiming theirs as the only Master. In doing so, they bring their teachers down to the level of an ordinary man. An aspirant, they claim, in spite of high achievements, counts for nothing unless and until he is prepared to give all credit to their master. What blind ignorance! If the master were an ear-witness of his disciple's utterance, he would be burned with shame. On this Vivekananda says:
‘Very well, brother, follow the ideal and advance in your own way. I do not care whether you give me the credit for the teaching or not... I only teach truth, and truth is nobody's property, nobody's patent truth. Truth is God Himself. Go forward.’ But what the disciples say nowadays is ‘No matter whether you practise the teachings or not, do you give credit to the Man? If you credit the Master, you will be saved; if not there is no salvation for you.’"
Christ unveiled the truth “The Kingdom of Heaven is within you.” A heroic echo is heard in Vivekananda: "It is already yours… It is yours by right.“ We are drawn to the famous lines of the Gita: “He who seeth Me everywhere and seeth everything in Me, of him will I never lose hold, nor shall he ever lose hold of Me.” Almost parallel to this, are the divine words of Christ: “He that loseth his life for my sake shall find it.”
The Nazarene was a product of the East, although the people of the West have managed to forget this bare truth. “An Oriental of Orientals,” said Vivekananda of the son of Mary. It is quite natural that in the Bible we come across many images, symbols, natural scenes and simple ways of living common to the oriental countries. But what is more important, the oriental view is that this material life falls short of true satisfaction. So when Christ says: “Not this life, but something higher,” Vivekananda could not help remarking, “Like a true son of the Orient, he is practical in that.”
Vivekananda meant that our earthly achievements, however grandiose, are in no way enough to quench the ever-pinching thirst of human souls to attain to higher life.
Christ's body is Christianity. Christianity embodies humility. Vivekananda's humility the entire world treasures. He once said:
Vivekananda and AmericaHe who broke the barrier between East and West and placed the two on common ground is still a living force in both. His function was to bring in oneness where there was none before, by carrying the best of each to the other. The East had become lost by moving away from materialism; the West by keeping clear of spirituality. A happy marriage of the two, he deeply felt, was the supreme need of the world. Life without spirituality was as poor as life without material power. Hence he dynamised the East with the force of the West, and inspired the West with the ancient wisdom of the East.
It is foolish to think that he sailed for America to satisfy his mental curiosity. It is also an absurdity to believe that his feet touched foreign shores to make a noise in the world. No. It was Sri Ramakrishna's silent blessing that kindled the inspiration-fire of the beloved disciple to share his light with the soil and soul of America.
No country is superior to others in all spheres of life. Vivekananda with his deeply penetrating insight says: “As regards spirituality, the Americans are far inferior to us, but their society is far superior to ours.” He showed how a happy and true union could be effected between the other-world-loving Indians and the this-world-loving Americans: “We will teach them our spirituality and assimilate what is best in their society.”
Asia, Europe and America — each continent made a contribution of its own to the world at large. With the help of his spirit's vision, Vivekananda revealed the truth: "Asia laid the germs of civilisation, Europe developed man, and America is developing woman and the masses.”
It is an established fact that the women in America are the most advanced in the world, especially in the cultivation of knowledge. Vivekananda made a surprising observation:
Vivekananda's soul-stirring addresses inspired the audience to have faith in all the religions of the world, to hug the best in each religion. There was a magic spell of throbbing delight woven around his very name at the Parliament of Religions. He was the figure that dominated the world's gaze there. A report appeared in the Boston Evening Transcript of September 30th, 1893, about the great triumph of the Indian spiritual giant: “If he merely crosses the Platform, he is applauded, and this marked approval of thousands he accepts in a childlike spirit of gratification, without a trace of conceit.” The same paper on April 5th, 1894, had an irresistible recollection:
It is indeed only when we live in this truth that we can bask in the glorious Sunshine of the Soul that is Vivekananda.
Vivekananda and EnglandWhat Vivekananda, as a boy, despised and obstinately refused to learn, proved, in his glorious youth, a mighty instrument of victory in his hands. Apart from his towering spiritual personality, his hold on the English tongue gave his hold on the mind, heart and soul of East and West. His obstinacy failed to reverse God's Will that was shaping his destiny.
As each individual has a distinct place to fill in the world, even so every language has an important role. And it has been an established fact that no other European tongue has so much power of assimilating elements from foreign languages as does the English language.
The English language was brought into Britain by Teutonic invaders.
These invaders were of three types: Jutes, Saxons and Angles. In fact, modern English has undergone a considerable change. It is no more the language brought into Britain by the Saxons and the Angles.
Grimm, a German linguist, writes in his famous book On the Origin of Languages that "English possesses a veritable power of expression such as perhaps never stood at the command of any other language of men. Its highly spiritual genius and wonderfully happy development and condition have resulted from a surprisingly intimate union of the two noblest languages in modern Europe, the Teutonic and the Roman."
Not only in his boyhood, but also in the prime of his youth while his feet were touching the alien shores Vivekananda's ruthless contempt for England is almost unbelievable. As regards the English national life a strong suspicion was then haunting his mind.
To quote him:
I am sure, I will lose much here in this humble attempt of mine if the ever-inspiring memory of Nivedita does not echo in my heart. In sending out his spiritual daughter Nivedita's supreme sacrifice into the world Swami Vivekananda declared: “Nivedita is the fairest flower of my work in England.”
The presiding Deity of England not only claps her hands with delight but burns herself, as it were, in the flames of ecstasy to hear from a spiritual Giant of the East: “My work in England has been more satisfactory than anywhere else. I firmly believe that if I should die tomorrow, the work in England would not die, but would go on expanding all the time.” The disciple of Sri Ramakrishna was a live spring of spiritual force. No hyperbole, he was the Recoverer and Vivifier of the submerged soul of India. It is with his Master's immortal teachings that he vitalised the sinews of India and illumined her darkened soul. Vivekananda was not only a great Indian figure, but a world influence. What we actually learn from him is to fight while there is life within our limbs. Fight against what? Fight against Weakness, fight against Ignorance.
Vivekananda in PondicherryPondicherry derives from Puduhcheri, a new town. Yes, it is a new, an ever-new town, new from age to age.
In Agastya's time it was Vedapuri, the seat of Vedic knowledge. The truths of the Veda are at once eternal and ever-new. Coming down to our own days we find Vivekananda visiting Pondicherry in 1893 just a few months before embarking on his historic voyage to America where the multitudes of people heard in him the voice of eternity ringing across the ages and saw the ineffable vision of God.
Vivekananda, the dearest disciple of Sri Ramakrishna, Tilak, the fearless Champion of India's swaraj, Bharathi, the patriot Bard of India's nationalism and independence, Sri Aurobindo, the Heaven-born Prophet of India's independence and of the Life Divine, all hallowed the town with the dust of their feet. Sri Aurobindo's fixing on Pondicherry as the divinely ordained seat of his world-transforming Sadhana was followed by the visits of a number of distinguished leaders of the national movement — Lala Lajpat Rai, C. R. Das, Moonje, Purushottamdas Tandon and Rabindranath Tagore, to name only a few. In 1914 came here — an epoch-making event in the history of the world — from Paris a remarkable spiritual Figure, Madame M. Alfassa, now known as the Mother of the Sri Aurobindo Ashram. It is she who by her divine Personality and far-seeing powers of organisation has changed the face of Pondicherry to a great extent and is going on building up a New Life in this ever new town. The Vedapuri of old is again going to be the Vedapuri of the modern times — the meeting-place of East and West, the place of pilgrimage of the whole world.
During his six-year itinerary Vivekananda toured from end to end. From the Himalayan heights all down the plains he came to the farthest point of Cape Comorin, the confluence of the three waters, the Bay of Bengal, the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea. Appalling poverty, malignant wretchedness and untold degradation of India tortured his athletic heart. Further-more caste-system was for him an unspeakable abomination. Equally, to set foot on foreign shores was, in those days, a counter-abomination for the orthodox. Hence Vivekananda's position in the orthodox circles of Pondicherry could easily be imaginable. There was a hot exchange of words between Vivekananda and an orthodox pandit of the town over his seavoyage. The pandit had a musty load of crystallised superstitions of by-gone days in the head. He gloried in spending all his energy upon discussing touchableness and untouchableness of this man and that man, of this food and that food, of this country and that country. We shall leave Vivekananda himself to relate to us that curious incident.
“Balaji and G.G. may remember one evening at Pondicherry — we were discussing the matter of sea-voyage with a Pandit, and I shall always remember his brutal gestures and his kadapi na (Never)! They do not know that India is a very small part of the world, the whole world looks down with contempt upon the three hundred millions of earth-worms crawling upon the fair soil of India and trying to oppress each other. This state of things must be removed.” This was the Pondicherry of 1893! It is but few who could really feel and appreciate his stupendous sacrifice for his Motherland. Rabindranath said of Vivekananda: “He sacrificed his life into a bridge between East and West.” Sri Aurobindo said of Vivekananda: "The capitulation of Vivekananda to Sri Ramakrishna was a capitulation of the West to the East.” The symbolic beginning is now become the realistic fact that is emerging in Pondicherry. France replaced her political link with Pondicherry by a golden link of her culture. Pondicherry stands an Indian town with a broad intellectual culture and outlook — the promising beginning of a consummation of Vivekananda's dream to bring West into East and East into West as well as Sri Aurobindo's and the Mother's, all aiming at Unity in diversity of culture.
A spiritual giant and a seer-poetVivekananda was a flaming tongue of fire. Tagore was a sea of beauty and delight. Vivekananda was a clarion-call. Tagore was a soul-stirring flute. To both, humanity was a great love, dynamic and powerful on the part of Vivekananda, soft and sweet on the part of Tagore.
Vivekananda says in effect: "No time to linger! Awake, O India, and with your dauntless strength, achieve the loftiest height of your Spirit. ” Tagore says in effect: "Look everywhere and see God's beauty and then, O Ind, raise your proud head towards the Highest.”
With his spirit's height, Vivekananda was the most nourishing, life-giving fruit. With his creative genius, Rabindranath was the most beautiful flower. The Goddess Mahakali shone in the eyes of Vivekananda. The Goddess Mahalakshmi smiled through the eyes of Rabindranath.
Yet it was only after the recognition of the West that the East would claim them, the spiritual giant by the impact of his Chicago address, the mystic poet by virtue of his Gitanjali. In both cases, the divine singer expressed himself in divine measure. Through his spiritual emotion and his soul-stirring voice, Narendra pleased his divine master, Ramakrishna, and through him, the world. By his soul-awakening songs of transcendental beauty, Rabindranath charmed the world and seized the All-Blissful.
Both Narendranath and Rabindranath came into the world from the Unknown. They were, as it were, two tireless voyagers. Rabindranath touched the earth-sphere in 1861, just two fleeting years before Narendranath. Narendranath left earth and entered the upper-sphere in 1902, thirty-nine long years before Rabindranath.
Verily, Vivekananda and Tagore were pilgrims to Infinity's Shore, where the finite, at last, has its perfect Play.
The spiritual daughter of Swami VivekanandaEast represents the Soul-power. West represents the power of Matter. The absolute surrender of Miss Margaret Noble at the feet of an Indian Sannyasin stands as a glorious proof of the submission of the West before the spiritual Light of India. This truth finds its significant corroboration in the very name Nivedita given by her Master. Truly, Nivedita was an emblem of true offering. She successfully utilised the power that she received from her Master in the cause of the upliftment of Indian womanhood and to free the Indian Nation from foreign yoke. This again proves that as the East is endowed with the power of imparting spirituality, even so the West possesses the power of receiving it. The sincerity of her devotion to her Master expressed itself more in her life than in anything else. She lived the truths which she heard from the Swami's soul-awakening lips. And in this connection, it will be quite apposite on our part to remember the fiery and intoxicating words that she received from Vivekananda on the eve of her departure to India. “I will stand by you unto death, whether you work for India or not, whether you give up Vedanta or remain in it. The tusks of the elephant come out, but they never go back. Even so are the words of a man.” Needless to say that her Master's words echoed and re-echoed in the innermost recesses of her heart during her historic voyage, nay, to the end of her life. Margaret's father was quite aware of her bright future even in her childhood. He found that his daughter was not of the common run. Therefore Samuel, who was a parson, before breathing his last spoke to his wife in a low tone, almost a whisper, about Margaret:
She will do great things."
“The Mother's heart, the hero's will,
The sweetness of the southern breeze,
The sacred charm and strength that dwell
On Aryan altars, flaming free
All these be yours and many more.
No ancient soul could dream before, —
Be thou to India's future son,
The mistress, servant, friend in one.”
The chief disciple received from her Master this unique benediction while she was being initiated into the vow of Brahmacharya (celibacy) and the name Nivedita was given to her. A man treading the path of spirituality must never forget that as opportunity never knocks at one's door twice, even so benediction, a true benediction, rarely repeats itself. But the power of that benediction can easily fight out the stupendous odds of centuries that eclipse the Knowledge-Sun of the disciple. It will be worth while to pay more attention to the word 'benediction’, the touchstone in the life of Nivedita. It happened that during their stay at Almora, Vivekananda for some time assumed altogether a different aspect in his relation to Nivedita. He was unbelievably severe to her. He neglected her much more than he possibly could. "My relation,” says the disciple, “to our Master at this time can only be described as one of clash and conflict.” But the red-letter day at last dawned to save her life from the deepest pangs. To cite her once again: “And then a time came when one of the older ladies of our party, thinking perhaps that such intensity of pain inflicted might easily go too far, interceded kindly and gravely with the Swami. He listened silently and went away. At evening, however, he returned and finding us together in the verandah, he turned to her and said with the simplicity of a child, “You are right. There must be a change. I am going into the forests to be alone and when I come back I shall bring peace.” Then he turned and saw that above us the moon was new and a sudden exaltation came into his voice as he said, “See! the Mohammedans think much of the new moon. Let us also with the new moon begin a new life!” As the words ended, he lifted his hands and blessed with silent depths of blessing his most rebellious disciple, by this time kneeling before him … It was assuredly a moment of wonderful sweetness of reconciliation …. Long, long ago Sri Ramakrishna had told his disciples that the day would come when his beloved 'Naren' would manifest his own great gift of bestowing knowledge with a touch. That evening at Almora I proved the truth of his prophecy.”
A rare combination of sweet devotion and lofty intellect was Nivedita. No Indian will ever deny the important role that she played after entering into the Indian political fray. With a fearless heart she associated herself with the activities of Sri Aurobindo, Tilak and other political leaders of the front rank. In those days she was surcharged within and without with her Master's indomitable spirit. She had fully learnt the meaning of suffering. To our joy her mighty sacrifice was crowned with success.
“Nivedita,” says Tagore, “was the universal mother. We have seldom come across such motherly love which can embrace the whole of a country outside the bounds of its family circle…. When Nivedita used to say 'our people,' one could easily detect the tone of intense familiarity in that; it was so sincere and yet so spontaneous!… Nivedita had the natural power to endear herself to the people of India, irrespective of caste, creed and religion. She could mix with them intimately and freely. She looked at them with respect and not with compassion.”
In this connection let us cite here an incident that actually took place in her life. The milk-man who would daily supply her with milk asked her one day to give him some advice on religion. On hearing it her eyes were flushed with surprise. "You! you are an Indian. You need to have a piece of advice from me? Is there anything that you people do not know? You are the descendant of Sri Krishna. Accept my salutation.”
The following lines appeared in the Karmayogin edited by Nivedita in the absence of Sri Aurobindo who had then retired to Chandernagore on receiving a divine Command from above. We shall observe here how Nivedita identified herself with India and expressed her high hopes that India would occupy the highest rank of leadership in the domain of intellectual activities:
some few to be chewed and digested."
The life and teaching of Sister Nivedita can easily claim to form an imperishable part of the recent history of Indian womanhood. Her wonderful sacrifice lives in spirit in spite of her departure from human existence, through the ever-expanding activities of the followers and admirers of Ramakrishna-Vivekananda. Nivedita's was a heart of supreme selflessness. Her devotion pined to dive into the sea of Hindu Religion to discover “full many a gem of purest ray serene”. And she got them. She with her superb intellect ceaselessly helped Indian education, art, science and politics. Her multifarious activities transcend human understanding, culminating in direct contact with the Olympian spirit of her Guru. Her humility remained throughout as an innate characteristic, notwithstanding the ceaseless outpouring of respect and veneration she received from the hearts of those who knew her and closely studied her life.
Napoleon's dictionary did not house the word 'impossibility', and hers had no room for 'despair.' Even the last words she uttered under her breath amply show that her life which was a true replica of her Master's heroic spirit would not give way to despair:
Notes on publicationFirst Edition, January 1970
Published by Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondicherry
Printed at Sri Aurobindo Ashram Press, Pondicherry
© Sri Chinmoy Kumar Ghose 1970
Printed in India 1970